The Paris Agreement, like most other international agreements, goes through three phases before it enters into force: acceptance, signature and accession. New York, 5 October – The historic Paris Agreement on combating climate change will enter into force on 4 November, as announced today by the United Nations. Russia has kept its word and has not yet ratified the agreement. But India ratified on 2 October and the EU managed to speed up its ratification, so that emissions from member states that had already ratified on the national territory – France, Hungary, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Portugal and Malta – could be attributed to a total of 55%. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  The Paris Agreement, described as a historic agreement immediately after its adoption, owes its success not only to the return of an enabling environment for climate protection and sustainable development, but also to efforts to revamp the management of international climate negotiations. The Paris Agreement is supported by new initiatives, which are all adaptations to the difficulties identified by previous P.C.A. This innovative approach is based on four elements: the adoption of a universal agreement. Define the national contributions of each State to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Although the text of the agreement does not mention the content of these contributions, it obliges the signatory States to draw up a contribution plan, to implement it and to increase the amounts regularly.
The involvement of civil society in the negotiation process through the action programme adopted in November 2016, which brings together civil society initiatives from 180 countries. In 2015, members of civil society were appointed as high-level champions to facilitate civil society participation in the intergovernmental process. The financial commitment of industrialized countries to contribute $100 billion per year from 2020. This funding, which goes through the Green Climate Fund created in 2009, should give priority to the States most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and regularly report on the contribution it makes to controlling global warming.  No mechanism obliges a country to set a specific emissions target before a given date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States formally withdrew from the deal the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the deal after his inauguration.  In accordance with Article 21 of the Paris Agreement thirty days after the date on which the double threshold (at least 55 parties representing at least 55% of global emissions) is reached.
No one expected the Paris Agreement to enter into force so early. Until the penultimate draft text from Paris, there was no option for the agreement to enter into force before 2020. The implementation of the agreement by all Member States is assessed every five years and the first evaluation will take place in 2023. The result will be used as a contribution to member States` new national contributions.  The inventory will not be one of the contributions/performance of each country, but of a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. Adaptation issues required increased attention during the formation of the Paris Agreement. Long-term collective adjustment targets are included in the agreement and countries are accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the agreement with reduction.  Adjustment targets focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  The Paris Agreement will formally enter into force next month and will legally commit the countries that ratified the agreement in order to meet the commitments made last year. . .